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Title: Cadmium Stress Reprograms ROS/RNS Homeostasis in Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary
Authors: Gajewska, Joanna
Azzahra, Nur Afifah
Bingol, Özgün Ali
Izbianska-Jankowska, Karolina
Jelonek, Tomasz
Deckert, Joanna
Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena
Keywords: reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
fungal-like organism
late blight disease
heavy metal pollution
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Mdpi
Abstract: Heavy metal pollution causes many soils to become a toxic environment not only for plants, but also microorganisms; however, little is known how heavy metal contaminated environment affects metabolism of phytopathogens and their capability of infecting host plants. In this study the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the most harmful pathogen of potato, growing under moderate cadmium stress (Cd, 5 mg/L) showed nitro-oxidative imbalance associated with an enhanced antioxidant response. Cadmium notably elevated the level of nitric oxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite that stimulated nitrative modifications within the RNA and DNA pools in the phytopathogen structures. In contrast, the protein pool undergoing nitration was diminished confirming that protein tyrosine nitration is a flexible element of the oomycete adaptive strategy to heavy metal stress. Finally, to verify whether Cd is able to modify P. infestans pathogenicity, a disease index and molecular assessment of disease progress were analysed indicating that Cd stress enhanced aggressiveness of vr P. infestans towards various potato cultivars. Taken together, Cd not only affected hyphal growth rate and caused biochemical changes in P. infestans structures, but accelerated the pathogenicity as well. The nitro-oxidative homeostasis imbalance underlies the phytopathogen adaptive strategy and survival in the heavy metal contaminated environment.
ISSN: 1422-0067
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